2-Pyrrolidone is produced industrially almost exclusively by treating aqueous gamma-butyrolactone with ammonia at a temperature of 250–290 °C and pressures ranging from 0.4–1.4 MPa over solid magnesium silicate catalysts.
Pyrrolidin and Pyrrolidinophena with chemical ocean online.
The reaction is carried out in a tubular reactor which is packed with the solid catalyst. The latter is arranged as a fixed bed and the reaction is carried out in the vapor phase. Product yields of 75–85% are reached. After subsequent distillation and purification, the desired 2-pyrrolidone is obtained with a purity of 99.5%.
Alternative routes include the catalytic or electrochemical reduction of succinimide, the carbonylation of allylamine, the hydrogenation of succinonitrile under hydrolytic conditions and the reaction of maleic or succinic anhydride in aqueous ammonia with Pd–Ru-catalysts.
In 2010, the worldwide demand for 2-pyrrolidone was estimated to be 32.000 t. Important manufacturers of 2-pyrrolidone are BASF and ISP (International Speciality Products, now Ashland Inc.). Pyrrolidin and Pyrrolidinophena